Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-Pulpit)

A herbaceous perennial plant growing from a corm. It is a highly variable species typically growing from 30 to 65 cm in height with three parted leaves and flowers contained in a spadix that is covered by a hood. It is native to eastern North America, occurring in moist woodlands and thickets from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota, and south to southern Florida. (Shelby County Native)

Asarum arifolium (Evergreen Ginger)

A genus of plants in the birthwort family Aristolochiaceae, commonly known as wild ginger. The plant is called wild ginger because the rhizome tastes and smells similar to ginger root, but the two are not particularly related. The root can be used as a spice, but is a potent diuretic. (TN Native)

Asarum canadense (Canada wild ginger)

A herbaceous perennial native to deciduous forest in eastern North America, from the Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast, and from southeastern Canada south to approximately the fall line in the southeastern United States. Roots are shallow-growing, fleshy rhizomes that branch to form a clump. Leaves are kidney-shaped and persistent. Flowers are hairy and have three sepals, tan to purple on the outside and lighter inside, with tapered tips and bases fused into a cup. (Shelby County Native)

Caulophyllum thalictroides (Blue cohosh)

A species of Caulophyllum and family Berberidaceae, also called squaw root (which often is used for the parasitic flowering plant, Conopholis americana) or papoose root, is a flowering plant in the Berberidaceae (barberry) family. It is a medium-tall perennial with blue berry-like fruits and bluish-green foliage. (TN Native)

Cimicifuga racemosa (Black cohosh or fairy candle)

A plant of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). It is native to eastern North America from the extreme south of Ontario south to central Georgia, and west to Missouri and Arkansas. The plant grows in a variety of woodland habitats, and is often found in small woodland openings. The roots and rhizomes of black cohosh have long been used medicinally by Native Americans. Extracts from these plant materials are thought to possess analgesic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory properties. Today, black cohosh preparations (tinctures or tablets of dried materials) are used chiefly to treat symptoms associated with menopause. (TN Native)

Claytonia virginica (Eastern spring beauty)

A flowering plant in the family Portulacaceae, native to eastern North America. It is found in moist woods and clearings. It is a trailing plant growing to 5-40 cm long. The leaves are slender lanceolate, 3-14 cm long and 5-13 mm broad, with a 6-20 cm long petiole. The flowers are 7-14 mm diameter, with five pale pink or white (rarely yellow) petals, flowering is between March and May. Its scientific name honors Colonial Virginia botanist John Clayton (1694–1773). (Shelby County Native)

Delphinium tricorne (Dwarf larkspur)

Widespread in eastern North America, Delphinium tricorne a typical spring ephemeral. It grows from a cluster of tuberous roots and thus qualifies as a geophyte. In rich soil the plants may be as much as three feet high, but usually they are seen as smaller plants about a foot high. They bloom in early-mid May, and the flower color ranges from rich purple-blue to dirty whites. Oddly, this is not a common garden plant. (TN Native)

Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)

A perennial herbaceous plant, native to rich woods of eastern North America, with a disjunct population in the Columbia River Basin. The common name Dutchman's breeches derives from their white flowers that look like white breeches. Height is 15-40 cm. Root is a cluster of small pink to white teardrop-shaped bulblets. Leaves are 10-36 cm long and 4-18 cm broad, with a petiole up to 15 cm long; they are trifoliate, with finely divided leaflets. Flowers are white, 1-2 cm long, and are born in spring on flower stalks 12-25 cm long. (TN Native)

Dodecatheon meadia (Shooting star)

A species of wildflower found in the Southeastern United States, from Southeastern Minnesota and Southern Wisconsin to Oklahoma and Texas, and Maryland to Georgia and Alabama. Grows in moist or dry woods and prairies. It blooms in the spring and goes dormant in summer. (TN Native)

Geranium maculatum (Wild Geranium)

A woodland perennial plant native to eastern North America, from southern Manitoba and southwestern Quebec south to Alabama and west to Oklahoma and South Dakota. It grows in dry to moist woods and is normally abundant when found. It is a perennial herbaceous plant growing to 60 cm tall, producing upright usually unbranched stems and flowers in spring to early summer. The leaves are palmately lobed with five or seven deeply cut lobes, 10–12.5 cm broad, with a petiole up to 30 cm long arising from the rootstock. They are deeply parted into three or five divisions, each of which is again cleft and toothed. The flowers are 2.5–4 cm diameter, with five rose-purple, pale or violet-purple (rarely white) petals and ten stamens; they appear from April to June in loose clusters of two to five at the top of the stems. (Shelby County Native)

Iris cristata (Dwarf Crested Iris)

A beardless rhizomatous iris (genus Iris, subgenus Limniris) native to the eastern United States. (Shelby County Native)

Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebell)

A spring ephemeral plant with bell-shaped sky-blue flowers opening from pink buds, native to moist woodland in eastern North America. Leaves are rounded and gray-green, borne on a stem up to 60 cm (2 ft) high. They are petiolate at the bottom of the flower stem and sessile at the top. Flowers with five petals fused into a tube, five stamens, and a central pistil (carpel) are borne in mid-spring in nodding cymes at the end of arched stems. Buds are pink-tinged, changing to sky-blue as they open. White flowers occur rarely. Stamen and pistil are spaced too far apart for self-fertilization. The flower can be pollinated by bumblebees, but due to its funnel shape, bumblebees must hover, making the bumblebee a rare pollinator. Butterflies are the most common pollinators, because they can easily perch on the edges and still enjoy the nectar. In early summer, each fertilized flower produces four seeds within wrinkled nuts, and the plant goes dormant till the next spring. (Shelby County Native)

Pachysandra procumbens (Allegheny pachysandra)

A flowering plant in the family Buxaceae, native to southeast United States from West Virginia and Kentucky south to Florida, and west to Louisiana. The leaves are 5-10 cm long, with a coarsely toothed margin. The flowers are small, white, produced several together on a terminal raceme 2-3 cm long. (TN Native)

Podophyllum peltatum (Mayapple)

An herbaceous perennial plant in the family Berberidaceae, native to wooded areas of eastern North America. The stems grow to 30-40 cm tall, with 2 or occasionally 3 palmately lobed leaves up to 20-30 cm diameter with 5-9 deeply cut lobes on reproductive individuals, or one peltate (umbrella-like) leaf on sterile individuals. The single secund white flower 3-5 cm diameter, with six (rarely up to nine) petals, is produced at the axil of the two leaves (the upper two in a three-leaved plant); the flower matures into a yellow-greenish fruit 2-5 cm long. The plant is widespread and appears in clonal colonies in open mesic woodlands. Individual shoots are often connected by systems of thick tubers and rhizomes. (Shelby County Native)

Sanguinaria canadensis (Bloodroot)

A perennial, herbaceous flowering plant native to eastern North America from Nova Scotia, Canada southward to Florida, United States. Bloodroot is a variable species growing from 20 to 50 cm tall, normally with one large, sheath-like basal multi-lobed leaf up to 12 cm across. The flowers are produced from March to May, with 8-12 delicate white petals and yellow reproductive parts. The flowers appear over clasping leaves while blooming. Plants are variable in leaf and flower shape and have in the past been separated out as different subspecies due to these variable shapes; currently most taxonomic treatments lump these different forms into one highly variable species. Bloodroot stores sap in an orange colored rhizome, that grows shallowly under or at the soil surface. Over many years of growth, the branching rhizome can grow into a large colony. Plants start to bloom before the foliage unfolds in early spring and after blooming the leaves expand to their full size and go summer dormant in mid to late summer. Plants are found growing in moist to dry woods and thickets, often on flood plains and near shores or streams on slopes, they grow less frequently in clearings and meadows or on dunes, and are rarely found in disturbed sites. (Shelby County Native)

Stylophorum diphyllum (celandine-poppy)

A herbaceous perennial native to moist woodland in eastern North America, valued for its yellow flowers. Plants grow about 1.5 feet tall from rhizomes. Leaves are pinnately cut and lobed. They grow from the base and off the flowering stems. The sap is a yellow-orange latex that stains. The flowers have 4 yellow petals, two soon falling sepals, many yellow-orange stamens, and a single knobby stigma. They appear in umbels of one or more flowers from early spring to early summer. (TN Native)

Trillium grandiflorum (White trillium)

A perennial monocotyledonous plant in the lily family. It is native to eastern North America, from northern Quebec to the southern parts of the United States through the Appalachian Mountains into northernmost Georgia and west to Minnesota. is a perennial that grows from a short rhizome and produces a single, showy white flower atop a whorl of three leaves. These leaves are ovate in outline with pointed tips. They lack petioles (or have extremely short ones) and measure 12–20 cm long by 8–15 cm wide (58 in long by 3–6 in width), with very prominently engraved venation. Leaves and petals both have somewhat undulate margins, the leaves often much more strongly so. Individuals grow to between about 15 and 30 cm tall (6–12 inches). A single rootstock will often form clonal colonies, which can become very large and dense. (TN Native)

Uvularia grandiflora (Large-flowered bellwort)

A plant in the family Colchicaceae, native to eastern North America. It blooms in May, producing large yellow flowers. The top parts of the plant tend to bend downward due to the weight of the leaves and flowers. The light green stems are round, glabrous, and glaucous and the leaves are perfoliate since the stem appears to come through the leaves at the base. (Shelby County Native)